Let’s play two today! The Pittsburgh Pirates (25-25) and the Cincinnati Reds (24-28) start a four-game series with a day-night doubleheader on this Memorial Day holiday. First pitch of Game 1 is scheduled for 1:10 ET from Great American Ball Park.

The Pirates come to town having just been swept by the Los Angeles Dodgers in Pittsburgh. Pirates pitchers gave up 28 runs in three games and only scored 11 runs. That took their run differential to -59, the only NL Central team with a negative run differential.

Starting Pitchers

Luis Castillo 64.1 2.38 3.18 3.21 30.50% 10.90%
Nick Kingham 24.2 8.76 5.04 5.41 19.30% 11.80%

Luis Castillo looks to rebound from his first bad start of the season against the Milwaukee Brewers last Wednesday where he didn’t make it out of the third inning and gave up four runs on five hits while walking two and only striking out three. It happens because this is baseball. Castillo said himself after the game that he just didn’t have it that day.

Castillo has been able to both strike batters out and induce ground balls. With 87 strikeouts in 64.1 innings and a GB/FB ratio of 2.40, it’s no wonder his stats are among the best pitchers in the league right now. A reason for his success is the development of his change up. He’s using it about 31.5% of the time, up from 26.3% in 2018. And he’s figured out how to use both his change up and his four seamer together in a way that works.

Castillo faced the Pirates on Opening Day and gave up only one run on two hits with eight strikeouts in 5.2 innings.

Nick Kingham pitched out of the Pirates bullpen for the first month of the season and wasn’t terrible. He had a 4.35 ERA and 3.58 FIP and struck out 10 in 10.1 innings, while walking four. But the Pirates moved him to the starting rotation at the beginning of May and it has been pretty much a disaster. He’s given up 27 hits and 19 runs in 14.1 innings. He’s also had some control issues, having walked 12 batters in that span. Kingham throws five pitches, but mostly relies on his four-seamer. A lot of the four-seamers he’s thrown have been in the middle of the zone, which could explain why he’s been getting hit hard during his last few starts.

Tucker Barnhart is 3-for-3 with a triple against Kingham. Derek Dietrich and Eugenio Suarez have each hit a home run off him.


1. Adam Frazier (2B)
2. Bryan Reynolds (LF)
3. Starling Marte (CF)
4. Josh Bell (1B)
5. Melky Cabrera (RF)
6. Colin Moran (3B)
7. Elias Diaz (C)
8. Kevin Newman (SS)
9. Nick Kingham (P)
1. Nick Senzel (CF)
2. Joey Votto (1B)
3. Eugenio Suarez (3B)
4. Derek Dietrich (2B)
5. Jesse Winker (LF)
6. Yasiel Puig (RF)
7. Jose Iglesias (SS)
8. Tucker Barnhart (C)
9. Luis Castillo (P)

News and Notes

-Cody Reed comes up for the day. My guess is that he’ll go back to Louisville when the Reds announce a starter tomorrow.

-Scooter Gennett is getting closer to returning.

-Here’s a chart that shows how good the Reds pitching has been this season.

Final Thoughts

The Reds went 6-5 in a stretch of 11 games against 2018 first place teams, which included capturing two series wins against the #stupidcubs. But now it gets interesting. If the Reds really want to prove they can get back into the wild card race and maybe the division race too, they need to prove it this coming week. With seven games against the Pirates and Nationals, this is the perfect opportunity to get out of the NL Central basement.

155 Responses

  1. Pete

    This team looks like it is maturing as a unit. Don’t care how many runs they score, they must score more, stick the dagger in them. No mercy, especially against the Pirates. Keep pounding.

    Hey, line drives are back in style and not a moment too late. I’d have no problem if this past weekend play is showing us the new Joey Votto, Exit velocity? No. Launch angle: Nada. Just line drive singles, walks and working the count. Perfect #2 hitter in front of the big bats. If anyone is going to figure out a way to succeed, it’s Joey.

    • ToBeDetermined

      “line drives are back in style ”
      I’m lovin it

  2. Seat101

    Great prequel! Is this the day Tucker Barnhart gets his first a stolen base?

  3. Roger Garrett

    I am with you Pete and I hope they continue.Good at bats up and down the lineup keeps the pressure on the pitcher.Take what they give you.Go the other way or up the middle as Senzel did on his 3 hits yesterday.Hope we can get up early.Go Reds

  4. WVRedlegs

    Yes this would be a good week for the Reds to get moving. This one step forward two steps backwards under manager David Bell is getting very monotonous. If the Reds weren’t handicapped by manager David Bell they would already be near first place. If Bryan Price had ever, ever been given a rotation like this one he would have had the Reds in first place. Price didn’t drag down the offense the way Bell has.
    What has Bell done to the Reds hitters and offense? It is baffling.
    Puig moved down in the lineup to 6th. It is about freaking time. Terrible clean up hitter, but Bell had to have him batting 4th. Bell must be a slow learner as it took him 2 months to figure out Puig isn’t a cleanup hitter. Three months if you include spring training.
    Time to repay the Pirates with 4 game sweep in spite of David Bell’s managing. How will David Bell snatch defeat from the jaws of victory today?

    • vegastypo

      How long did it take Price to realize that Billy Hamilton was not a top-of-the-order hitter? Just sayin’. ………. And for good or for bad, don’t be surprised if Puig is right back at cleanup against a lefty pitcher.

    • PhP

      Before I thought you always said it was Ward’s fault?

    • Keith

      Yeah, wish David Bell hadn’t caused the Reds hitters to go into a collective slump for 2 months. Not sure what he was thinking asking Votto to hit .200. Poor choice on his part.

      I think the team is doing great. Excited about the rest of the year.

  5. Scooter Rolen

    Look forward to a day full of Reds baseball! This is definitely a key stretch for the Redlegs, not only because of who we play but who our division foes are playing. The Cubs play the Astros, Milwaukee plays the Twins, and St. Louis plays Philly – all three are road series (Reds are only NL Central team at home right now). Good time for Reds to take advantage while our division foes play tough division leaders.

    I also hope Cody Reed gets a legit chance in the ML bullpen soon. Wandy has been decent this season, but I still believe Reed deserves a shot over him. Reed’s looked awful good in his limited time w/ Reds so far this year. Reds have some young, strong arms in the pen with Garrett, Lorenzen, Stephenson – let’s give Reed a shot!

    Finally, it’s good to see Scooter getting closer to playing. His return would give the Reds another nice bat in the lineup and further depth throughout the lineup and bench. VanMeter would probably be the weak link at this point, but who knows what bench will look like in 2-3 weeks. Go Reds!

  6. Pete

    A word of caution: the Pirates are the definition of a scrappy club. You let them hang around and they will beat you. Clint Hurdle isn’t real popular with Reds fans but his guys play hard and don’t give up. Beat the Buccos like they’re trying to steal your kid’s lunch money.

    • Doug Gray

      Pretty sure you aren’t allowed to beat up kids.

      • Aaron B.

        We will make an execption in this case, these guys are evil. Beaming Dietrich for admiring a long HR when Archer was celebrating every k? That ain’t right, We don’t like this team. beat them and beat them every which way but loose.

  7. matt hendley

    Looks like all gloves are off to win the First game. Good plan, go against the guy who is hemorrhaging runs out. Assuming the Second game Pitcher is also RHP, I would assume that JVMR will get a start there. Reds must take advantage of this stretch to get back into it. Hitting approach team-wide has obviously changed to a more line drive oriented approach. Glad games are at home.

  8. Pete

    Have the Reds ever had a better arm in the outfield than Yasiel Puig?

      • Pete

        He certainly had a very good arm, nice call. Eric Davis too.

  9. Pete

    Heard Votto yell “GD” running down the line. He is giving every pitch all he has.

    • matt hendley

      you havent been listening well enough if you think its the first time JV has had a profane reaction to an out, it is the first time i remember him uttering a word that doesnt begin with ‘f’

      • Pete

        Ha! You’re right about that. I really don’t know if Joey’s physical skill is going to hold up but he might be successful on pure willpower. Honestly, I believe he is as competitive as Michael Jordan was. As a fan, I will be eternally grateful for the effort he puts in.

  10. Seat101


    Just your average ordinary double play

  11. CI3J

    Castillo is not having a smooth day out there. He’s lucky he hasn’t given up any runs yet. Seems he’s been having issues with his control last few starts.

  12. Pete

    Reds are coming out flat, time to step it up. Pirates will not beat themselves.

  13. CI3J

    Oh, Tucker….

    I believe that’s called “out by a country mile”.

    So now instead of 1st and 2nd with 1 out, it’s 1st with 2 outs.


  14. doofus

    Bonehead: Barnhart trying to go 1st to 3rd on a bloop to LF. Did he go to the Suarez/Votto School of Baserunning? I guess he “thought” with his World class speed he would easily make it to 3rd?

  15. Hanawi

    I’m sure it’s just because I pay more attention to the Reds, but the last 3 years or so, it seems like they do really well against the good pitchers and then get completely shut-down by the guys sporting 5+ ERAs. It’s mind-boggling.

    • RojoBenjy

      Oh, you aren’t the only one that notices that.

      The Reds excel in it.

  16. Pete

    So far the Reds are playing right into the Pirates hands. Walking a bit of a tightrope. Tucker with a base running blunder and Joey showing off his home run stroke. Ugh!

  17. Roger Garrett

    Just thought going in to today’s game we would be so ready to play and well its obvious we aren’t.Hard to figure sometimes what goes through a players head.Just a terrible terrible play by Barnhart.

    • Pete

      Not seeing the focus. This isn’t batting practice.

  18. Indy Red Man

    Blew a chance for 2-3 runs with Suarez coming to the plate. Thanks Tucker??? I’m all for catching the other guys napping, but that was idiotic? If was a short throw and the LF came hard to get the ball. The Reds don’t just get thrown out in a bang bang play?
    The ball has been there waiting on the Red to arrive atleast 6-7 times this year now?

    • Pete

      Castillo’s weak attempt at bunting Tucker over wasn’t exactly inspiring either.

  19. doofus

    The Reds seem to beat themselves with poor fundamentals. Barnhart, now Castillo’s balk.

    • Pete

      We’re playing Pittsburgh’s game. Can’t just put the gloves on and expect a W.

  20. CI3J

    Well, that inning was a mess, but managed to limit the damage to just one run.

    Come on, Reds, let’s tee up off Mr. 8.00 ERA.

  21. Pete

    Reds have hit one ball over 100 mph. Yesterday? 10. Kingham looks like a HOFer.

  22. doofus

    “Action, Action Doubleplay!” TB, what a treasure?

  23. Indy Red Man

    Puig? I’ll say it again….he’s too far off the plate. He was right on that ball, but he can only get it off the end of the bat because he’s too far off the plate? They only show him a pitch inside once in a while, but they get him out consistently away. If he moved up then he’d get jammed alot more, but they’d also have to come inside to a 250 lb man. Not every pitcher will do that regularly?

  24. CI3J

    We could use a Tucker GABP Special HR right about now, then let the bullpen see this out.

  25. CP

    Watching Luis Castillo try to handle a bat ugh. Just bring on the DH please.

  26. matt hendley

    A starting Pitcher should have regular practice on laying down the bunt. Castillo laying on the drama and got it done.

  27. doofus

    I have seen 15 year old Travel teams execute the fundamentals that the Red’s, a professional baseball team, cannot execute.

    Are today’s players transfixed on the plays (HR’s, SO’s, etc.) that get them the bug contracts, to be concerned with the small things that help to win ball games?

    Are the Red’s coaches getting through to these players?

    • matt hendley

      As suspected it was the hitting coach given free reign that seemed to cause the original problem. Whether there was an influence from upstairs or Tucker Ward changed his coaching, we will never know.
      Joey Votto coming through with some fundamentals there and the Reds have the Lead.

      • CP

        As suspected, you will agree with whatever your original premise was, despite lacking any evidence whatsoever. #confirmationbias

  28. matt hendley

    And nick comes through, although with the misfield iggy could have scored from first, thankfully we didnt have to find out

  29. doofus

    Votto needs to earn his paycheck here.

  30. Pete

    Votto coming through again. Apparently third time through the line up is the charm.

  31. CI3J

    Come on, Suarez, let’s keep the good times rolling.

  32. Pete

    Just missed but another double is A-OK.

  33. matt hendley

    Suarez adding on. They are into the Bullpen now. Reds must be ruthless in the first game bullpen. While they are of course allowed to use the relievers again in game two, if they use them in game one they won’t want too.
    Castillo must take this and Win.

  34. Indy Red Man

    Austin Meadows is hitting .349 for Tampa. The Pirates sealed their fate with that Archer trade. Small market teams just can’t ship away premier young talent. They’re going to end up last for several years! The Reds need to beat them down and then concentrate on running down the other 3 in years to come.

    • CP

      I dunno about the Pirates finishing last, but it is a reminder that young players’ development isn’t always a straight line but rather in fits and starts.

  35. Pete

    3 runs will not win this game. Castillo is on the ropes.

  36. Hanawi

    Castillo has been dancing around walks all season. Doesn’t seem like he’s had any control the last two times out. Hopefully can get out of this one and turn it over to the pen.

  37. doofus

    The Reds always seem to find multiple ways to mess up.

  38. vegastypo

    The Reds would benefit from the DH. Heck, the Reds would benefit from three or four DH spots: Votto, Gennett, Dietrich, Winker …

    • matt hendley

      Reds would benefit from having 35 players on the ROster and to be able to bat 12 like they do in a beer league. Especially if the other team doesnt get the same.

  39. matt hendley

    and the reds down to 7 position players on the field.

  40. Teddy

    And if Votto can just catch the ball we’re out of the inning up 3-1 batting in the sixth because then Iglesias is just taking thw easy out at first ….inning over no runs scored.

  41. Pete

    Garrett appearing in the 6th inning is not optimal but I don’t blame Bell. Need to stop the bleeding right here.

  42. matt hendley

    Bullpen game now, still slightly in reds favor with the benifit of being at home. Reds need to recover and put some more runs on the board.

  43. Indy Red Man

    Castillo has ace stuff, but aces don’t blow 4-5 run leads and when their team puts up go-ahead runs then they keep the momentum with a zero the next inning! People are not robots though. Hopefully he can grow as a pitcher? Garrett had Polanco too….LHP dominate lefty pitchers with breaking balls and not heaters. Show him the heater but don’t get beat with it?

    • da bear

      Castillo didn’t blow the lead. Votto and Iglesias accomplished that.

  44. Pete

    That was a bloodbath but game is only tied. Thank goodness the Pirates don’t hit well. Let’s get busy and put together a rally.

  45. Roger Garrett

    Reds have found ways to lose games like this so lets see if its more of the same.Indy is right about Castillo.Lets see if he can take that next step.Given a two run lead he should have closed the door.Not all on him because of the error but still he has to have that mind set right there to shut them down.

  46. Indy Red Man

    As soon as I say the Pirates are replacing the Reds in last place….the Reds say “Not so fast my friend”. I guess you can lose this game, but if your 2 era guy can’t beat their 8 era guy at home then you have problems? HR was gabp cheap though? How come we seem to get beat on those, but when do we hit game winning gabp cheapies? I don’t remember many?

  47. Roger Garrett

    Just can’t get out of their own way.Only guy on their team that can beat you with the long ball and he just did.

  48. matt hendley

    Pretty sure you can write Garrett of for game two of the DH.

  49. Ted

    Blaming Castillo is ridiculous, Votto just made probably the worst error of the entire year that allowed both runs to score.

    • matt hendley

      Blaming Votto wholy for the string of events is also ridiculous. Iggy also tried to glove toss the ball into center, Garrett gave up the HR.

      • da bear

        Iggy wouldn’t have glove tossed the ball to 2nd and try for a double play if Votto hadn’t dropped an easy ball to catch. Then it’s still a 3-1 lead, on to the 7th.

    • Hanawi

      Castillo did not have a good day either. 6 hits and 4 walks in a little over 5 innings. Only about half of his pitches were strikes.

    • Pete

      Reds have basically played horribly today but…..good teams figure out a way to win games like this. Consider this a test of the Reds mettle.

  50. matt hendley

    I am of the opinion that Matt Bowman should not be sent down to AAA ever again.

  51. Indy Red Man

    Ball 6 and Peraza finally takes his base. Cmon boys!!! Lets go!!!

  52. matt hendley

    I think it is safe to say Lance DIaz is not a good HP umpire

    • doofus

      So you are saying that he is the Latin version of Joe “The Worst Strike Zone in the” West?


      • Matt Hendley

        There is angel Hernandez of course.

  53. CI3J

    Ok, 2 fastest runners on 1st and 2nd, 1 out, Votto and Suarez up next, and Liriano can’t find the plate.

    You have to like the chances of scoring here… Right?

    • CI3J

      Now bases juiced for Geno, 2 fastest guys in scoring position, only 1 out…

      This is pretty much it. The Reds HAVE to score here if they have any hope of winning this game.

  54. Hanawi

    Looking at the heat map for where Votto is having success, it seems the choking up has had the desired effect of allowing him to get to balls on the inside of the plate, but he can no longer cover the outside and is getting killed from the middle out.

    Definitely a change after getting pounded inside at the beginning of 2018.

  55. Pete

    Votto is a very good baseball player. How in the… Okay, let take the lead and not look back.

  56. CI3J

    Geno just misses the granny…..

    But tie game!

  57. Indy Red Man

    A bunch of breaking balls to Votto but Peraza doesn’t chance it. Basehit to the outfield, but Peraza didn’t have much of a secondary lead? Granted not many guys score on that ball, but Peraza was only a shade slower then Billy when they timed him a few years ago. Hopefully Suarez can atleast tie it?

  58. CI3J

    Rats. How many balls have come off of Reds bats where you thought it was a HR, but it fell a few feet short?

    I count Votto, Geno (twice), Puig, and now VanMeter. You’d think ONE of those balls would go out.

    • Mariners77

      Agreed! Sitting in section 103 and I had no doubt that it was a granny for sure when it left the bat. So much for that…

  59. Reddawg12

    Thom apparently has a real inability to judge a fly ball off the bat, my goodness. They have been so close to breaking this game open and keep coming up short.

    • matt hendley

      SO did everyone else it seems.

  60. CI3J

    Reds are desperately trying to give this one away.

    • Hanawi

      Their defense is killing them. Double-switching out their clean-up hitter was probably not the brightest idea either.

    • CI3J

      And…. I think they may have just succeeded.

      Good job Reds. Gotta keep yourselves 5 games under .500, or else it will create some massive cosmic imbalance, right? You are the true heroes we don’t deserve.

    • Slicc50

      Nice outing for Hernandez! Pirates just have our number the last couple of years it seems.

  61. VaRedsFan

    Hernandez had some early season success…but I have no confidence when he pitches

  62. Indy Red Man

    Had enough. Burned out Lorenzen for no reason whatsover yesterday? They put way yyyy too much into Hughes & Hernandez’s performances last year. They’re old men baseball wise? 1-6 vs Pittsburgh is unacceptable!!! Simply not going to work? Win the other 3 is the only other acceptable outcome.

  63. Pete

    Ugh. Losing this game won’t be the end of the world but it’s going to feel like it.

    • CI3J

      1 step forward, 1 step backwards has been the Reds’ modus operandi since about April 6.

      In other words, welcome to the life of a fan of a perfectly mediocre team.

  64. ma

    And that’s it, best we can hope for is a split. Not the greatest pitching performance by anyone not named Matt Bowman today. Luckily there is a second game so there is a chance that the reds catch up to where they began the day.

  65. RedAlert

    Pathetic – owned by the stupid Pirates !

  66. earmbrister

    Frustrating game. The Reds D certainly let Castillo down and then the BP comes in with a gas can in hand.

  67. WVRedlegs

    David Bell and bullpen management go hand in hand like oil and water. What a mess of another should be win.

    • Indy Red Man

      Bell can only work with what they give him. Granted I’d rather have Lorenzen in the 8th then Hernandez, but Castillo was bad today. Garrett was bad. Hernandez was bad. Hard to put that on Bell? I would give Stephenson some high leverage chances. Why not?

    • Hanawi

      Double-switching out your clean-up hitter when the pitcher’s spot wasn’t even due up the next inning has to be one of the dumbest decisions of the year. That spot ended up coming up in a crucial situation, and he then had to pinch-hit for Bowman who looked pretty solid.

      • matt hendley

        Indeed, unless DD was injured there was no excuse for that.

  68. Cincyborn2012

    The way this game has gone is exactly why the Reds can’t improve beyond four games under .500. Super inconsistent play all over the diamond, and the bullpen (particularly Hernandez) is regressing back to what he is. Which is an average relief pitcher who will disappoint as much as he comes through in big situations.

    This team is incredibly frustrating.

  69. Pete

    Crick might beat himself if we let him.

  70. Indy Red Man

    Puig? We need another RH stick besides Suarez and Senzel? Not to mention Puig has always been worse vs LHP then RHP? I think the search continues? I was defending him 2-3 weeks ago, but his walk/K ration is terrible and he never seems to put a streak together?

  71. RedAlert

    Do Reds have any catching prospects even close ? – Tucker is absolutely brutal ! Gets too much playing time as it is

  72. Indy Red Man

    Bill Buckner passed away at 69. What a shame! He moved like an old man when he played. Professional sports is not easy….even baseball can be pretty hard on your body.

    • earmbrister

      You’re thinking of an old Buckner when he moved like an old man. The guy played TWENTY TWO seasons through the age of 40. When he was younger, Buckner could scoot.

      • Indy Red Man

        I’m 52. The only Buckner I remember wobbled. I do remember when Kirk Gibson could run.

      • earmbrister

        BB had SB seasons of 31 and 28 as a 24 and 26 year old Dodger, respectively. He even stole 18 bases as a 35 year old while playing in 162 games. He was moved to 1B by the Cubs to start his age 27 season due to a staph infection in his ankle the previous year in LA.

        Unfortunately, Buckner will be forever known for the grounder that went thru his legs in the WS. The guy was a very good player while he was in his prime.

  73. Pete

    Peraza hits everything with his weight on his front leg – remarkable.

    • VaRedsFan

      always been that way, no weight shift or drive whatsoever.

  74. earmbrister

    Peraza, the most patient hitter on the Reds … LOL

    Who would’ve thunk it?

  75. Curt

    Lucky break, Peraza K’d. No foul tip.

  76. TyGuy88

    This one simply falls on the bullpen and Votto’s missplay on the double play. I am very concerned about the bullpen going forward.

  77. Hanawi

    Pirates get the big hits and the Reds leave them loaded. Just cannot get over the hump: either getting to 3 below .500 or beating the Pirates. Probably should have put my life savings on this game. Frustrating.

  78. earmbrister

    Heckuva play by Winker. The man is nearly as slow as some make him out to be.

  79. CI3J

    All I can really do is shake my head sadly. How can this team go into Wrigley and take 2 of 3 from the Cubs, then come home with their best pitcher on the mound and be losing to the Pirates 8-4 going into the 9th inning?

    I know some of the writers on RLN like to keep pointing out how “fun” this team is, but games like this are not “fun”. They are frustrating and demoralizing. Will this team ever have all of it’s parts clicking at once?

  80. Roger Garrett

    Just bad work all the way around by this team.Bad game all the way around.Total meltdown while Iggy watches.Bell said he would use him when the chooses but he has only pitched in the ninth since he said that.Let one get away in the 8th at Chicago and again today.Hurdle brought his closer into the game with the game on the line in the 8th.No reason at all not to use Iggy in the 8th.

    • matt hendley

      Yea,,,,,lets not forget about that second game today now,

  81. matt hendley

    A glimpse of good work, Peralta saves the Bullpen from further use. Safe to say, Garrett and Hernandez, are out for game 2. Bowman can still be used. Peralta probably not coming back either.

  82. Indy Red Man

    Glad the Pirates gave away Austin Meadows (.349) and Tyler Glascow (6-1 w/a 1.86 era) or they’d go 16-2 vs the Reds. They may go 14-4 anyway?

  83. Pete

    Is it possible? Starting a game we had no business losing to a game we have no business winning to a game we win?

  84. Jon

    Reds need another big bat in their lineup, but Puig isn’t the long-term solution. Far too inconsistent. I would much rather the Reds sign Gennett to a three or four year extension and find another outfielder to play with Winker and Senzel the next few years.

  85. Pete

    Guys need to suck up and do much better in the second game.

  86. Indy Red Man

    0-9 now when they’re 3 under?? 19 runs allowed in Castillo’s last 2 starts? Advanced stats also reveal Puig is hitting .440 off of hanging breaking balls. .000 vs everything else.

    U G L Y

    and they ain’t got no alibi

  87. Old-school

    Reds need to win game 2. They’ve been resilient and bounced back all year. Vazquez will be out for game 2. Sonny Gray needs to be really good.

  88. matt hendley

    indeed, for the Reds sake this prospect of PIT better turn out to be a suspect

  89. RedsMonk65

    Well, that just plain … rots.

    Hope Sonny shines in the nightcap.